Water Quality in Hanoi: Current Situation vs Future Situation without Mitigation Measures

  • City: Hanoi, Vietnam
  • Future scenarios considered the effect of climate change, population growth, and urbanization.
  • Mitigation measures included in the analysis was the expansion of wastewater treatment capacity from 200,000 m3/day to 354,000 m3/day.
  • The water quality (expressed as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)) will have deteriorated by a further 53.1% on average in 2030 when compared to the current situation.
  • According to their master plan, all domestic wastewater currently flowing into the rivers, except for the Kim Nguu River, will be transferred to new wastewater treatment plants. We suggest that the rivers be supplemented with treated wastewater from surrounding wastewater treatment plants or water from other sources to maintain the river flow and to significantly improve the water quality, as shown in the mitigation plan scenario (85.8% reduction compared to the scenario without mitigation measures).