Low Carbon Technologies in Wastewater Treatment
Four low carbon technologies applicable to the target cities have been identified, as listed in Table 1. The reduction in the emissions of three GHGs (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) by introducing the technologies was calculated using two scenarios: Wastewater treatment plants planned in the master plans, and/or other wastewater management plans, to be implemented by 2030 with common technologies used in the country; and low carbon technologies to be applied in implementing the above plans.
Estimation of GHG Emission Reduction
In total, 196,707 t CO2/year was reduced by applying low carbon technologies to the implementation of master plans and/or relevant government plans of three target cities, namely Hanoi, Manila, and Jakarta (Table 2). Among the low carbon technologies proposed, utilization of biogas for power generation was most effective in reducing GHG emissions, which account for 69% of the total reduction (Figs. 1-3).
Table 1. Low carbon technologies assessed for wastewater management in target cities
|Wastewater treatment||1) Introduction of high efficiency pump
2) Introduction of high efficiency blower
|Sludge treatment||3) Utilization of biogas for power generation|
|Others||4) Introduction of solar power system in the wastewater treatment plant site|
Table 2. GHG emission reduction by application of low carbon technologies to master plans or relevant plans of wastewater management in target cities
|Target city||Capacity of wastewater treatment
plants listed in the master plans
|GHG emission reduction
Figure 1. GHGs emission reduction by application of low carbon technologies: Hanoi
Figure 2. GHGs emission reduction by application of low carbon technologies: Jakarta
Figure 3. GHGs emission reduction by application of low carbon technologies: Manila